The Pentagon’s Germ Warfare

Friday 5 December 2008

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Officially established in 1997, the influential league of the “Project for a New American Century” (PNAC) brings together an impressive number of members of the Ronald Reagan’s government. In 2000, this group theorizes in his report entitled “Rebuilding America’s defenses” the necessity for itself to preserve and increase its hegemonic position in order to institute the “Pax Americana”. In preamble to this report, it declares: “At present the United States faces no global rival. Americas’s grand strategy should aim to preserve and extend this advantageous position as far into the future as possible”.

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Les acteurs du PNAC

In order to reach this goal, the PNAC advocates the creation of a spatial military unit to dominate the space, to control the cyberspace considered as a potential enemy weapon, at last to develop biological weapons capable of targeting human genotypes. Thus, neoconservative ideologists foretell that: “While it could take many decades to the process of adaptation to spread out, in the end the state of war, in the airs, on the ground and on sea, will be very different that it is today and the battle probably will take place in new dimensions: in the space or the cyberspace and maybe in the world of microbes”. And not only they write: “Munitions itself will be more and more precise, whereas new methods of attack – electronic, non lethal, biologic- will be easily available. At last, they precise their thought: ”And advanced forms of biologic wars capable to target specific genotypes will take the biologic war to the reign of terror to a useful political tool”.

Most of the PNAC members form, in 2001, the hard core of the Bush junior’s Administration, which expresses, since the beginning of this mandate, an intention to privilege an unilateral action and the refusal to see the United States’ sovereignty limited by the multilateral treaties and the international rights. This strategy of primacy was articulated, since 1992, in a confidential report entitled “Defence Policy Guidance” written by Paul Wolfowitz, Assistant Secretary of Defense, and Lewis Libby, advisor about security questions, under the vice presidency of Dick Cheney. This text advised “preventing any hostile power to dominate the areas whose resources would permit them to reach the status of great power”, “dissuading advanced industrial countries of any tentative aiming to challenge our leadership or to reverse political and economic established order”, and “preventing the future emergence of any global competitor”. A doctrine which is one notch below more of the “containment” of the Cold War period.

After the attacks of September 11th, 2001, the “Spatial Pearl Harbour” foretold by Donald Rumsfeld, the military revolution needed by the PNAC, is passed and included in the budget by the Congress. The new spatial army is created, and, authorized by this extraordinary event, the unilateral withdrawal of ABM Treaty which limits the space militarization, allows to relaunch the “Star Wars” program undertaken on Reagan and also to deploy his anti missile shield. As well as a cyberspace control has been achieved through the Cyber-Command created in 2006 and announced, since 2003, in the “Information Operations Roadmap” document.

In 2002, under the impetus of Paul Wolfowitz, this administration adopts “The National Security Strategy of the United States of America” which presents the conception of pre-emptive war on which United States would not limit themselves to defensive war acts but would be first to execute acts of war against any country allegedly on the verge to attack them. It is a pronounced acceleration on the scale of US’ warlike intentions. The “Bush’s Doctrine”, unilateral and often harsh in the speech, recommends the preventive war, the preservation of the American military supremacy and also the development of international cooperation, rights of Humans and of Liberty. It targets, the re foundation of the Arabic Muslim world.

Following this, the “National Strategy for fighting the Weapons of Mass Destruction” has been issued. This plan calls the use in first of the WMD by recourse at all options, nuclear, chemical and biologic and it usurps the Congress’ right to declare war in violation of the United States’ Constitution.


Just like the ABM Treaty (Anti-Ballistic Missile), the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) has been ratified in 1972 by more than one hundred nations including the United States. This treaty prohibits the development, manufacturing and stockpiling of bacteriological weapons and requires their destruction or conversion to peaceful purposes. Since World War II, the United States are developing an offensive biological warfare but, under Nixon, biological weapons are said to be militarily counterproductive, meaning they may cause a “backlash” on armed forces and populations.
Moreover, the U.S. have a massive nuclear arsenal estimated more efficient than the biological weapons viewed as the “atomic bomb of the poor”. Thus, the BWC prevents the development of these cheap weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by Third World countries and guarantees to the USA the military superiority of their nuclear strike capability thanks in 1968 to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Nixon in appearance respects the BWC, however inside the Pentagon, the former unit of the bio-chemical program was not dissolved. And after coming back to power in 1981, the Pentagon’s Reaganians are bringing with them massive funds in military biological programs under defense pretexts, exploiting a vulnerability within the BWC which doesn’t prohibit the research “for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes.” In fact, the Convention authorizes the development, production and perhaps even the storage of biological pathogens in limited amounts if they are linked to the production of defense means such as vaccines, therapies and special protection clothing. Similarly, research is permitted de facto, since the Convention makes no reference to it. In addition, the BWC has been written before genetic engineering had reached the level of Life Science, then they didn’t take into account the knowledge that allows to develop a double-edged instrument which can lead to a defensive or offensive use.

With their Biological Defense Research Program, neo-conservatives are signing contracts with the most famous universities throughout the United States, in total violation of Article I of the BWC. In 1985, addressing legitimate concern regarding the abuse of life sciences by the Pentagon, Congress asked the Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG) to make a legislative proposal. At this time, the CRG ignores that the Reaganians have already authorized, through Donald Rumsfeld, then U.S. representative in the Middle East, shipments of biological agents (Nile Virus and Anthrax) to Saddam Hussein, in violation of Article III of the BWC, hoping that he will militarize it and use it against Iran. This administration will oppose the law bill of the CRG. Taken into office, Bush senior replaced the Reaganiens by experts more akin to the Nixon’s policy and this new team allowed the vote of the law required by the CRG, asking to submit it to Congress as a measure to face bio-terrorism from the Third World likely to threaten the United States. It is the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, and it remedies any deficiencies in the BWC’s text which was observed until the arrival of the Clinton administration. The latter reactivates the illegal research financing of the Pentagon, despite its extensive activity of the previous decade.

Coming back into business, Reaganians recycled with Bush junior, denying their own sites to be inspected, rejected the verification and control protocol of the BWC, then under negotiation at the international level. The New York Times revealed a week before the attacks of September 11, 2001, one of the main reasons for this decision: the administration wanted to hide some biological warfare programs. According to a report of the New York newspaper, three projects seemed particularly disturbing: 1) the test of an experimental installation using generally harmless organisms, but with characteristics close to the pathogen ones used as biological weapons; 2) the testing of a bacteriological bomb, some components of which were not finalized; 3) a genetic engineering plan on a resistant strain of anthrax. They write : “The United States have launched a secret program of research on biological weapons which according to some officials are testing the limits of the global treaty banning such weapons. […] Earlier this year, the administration said that the Pentagon had plans to genetically create a potentially more powerful variant of the bacterium that causes anthrax.”

The Center for Law and the Public’s Health, which was formed one month before the 2000 elections, met in October 2001 in order to establish a legislation to answer the ongoing bio-terrorist threat. On November 23rd, they issued a document called “Model State Emergency Health Powers Act” (MSEHPA), a law that the Department of Health and Human Services, hoped to be signed off by the 50 states, in order to control future public health emergencies, such as bio-terrorism. A revised version was issued on December 21st, containing a more precise definition of public health emergency which characterizes bio-terrorism and biological agents, and includes provisions for states which want to use this act in case of a chemical, nuclear or natural disaster.

The MSEHPA requires that each individual be vaccinated, a refusal being a crime leading to quarantine, and also for each individual to get a specific medical treatment, a refusal being a crime leading to quarantine. They can seize any property, including apartment blocks, food, medicine, gasoline or clothing that an officer deems necessary to control the emergency, and seize, destroy any property that could be dangerous, without compensation or recourse. It can affect a citizen or a company working for the state, can impose rationing, prices control, the quota and transportation control. Finally, this Act can suspend any state laws, rules or regulation for which will be believed to interfere with the preservation of the emergency state.

The MSEHPA is currently being evaluated by seven states. Doesn’t this law hope for an excuse to be enacted and then implemented ? What do the authorities forecast in proposing such a law? For which major event are they preparing ?

The new Chemical and Biological Defense Program (CBDP) published in May 2004, the successor of Reagan’s Biological Defense Research Program, gave acces to more than 300 institutes and 12,000 people to pathogens suitable for biological warfare. The number of grants from the National Institutes of Health devoted to research on infectious diseases have been multiplied by 15. The CBDP will subsequently be supported by the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) of the Pentagon. Reading the FPEIS / CBDP, it is clear that the Pentagon is preparing to conduct a biological warfare in accordance with the 2002 national strategy guidelines of Bush Jr. Thus, a paragraph of this declaration states that the mission of the CBDP is extended to the defense of military capabilities in order to face a threat during national security missions and combat missions.

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Laboratoire bactériologique à Fort Detrick

According to a Washington Post report of August 2005, the Pentagon has developed its first plans for operations aiming to impose martial law across the country, in violation of a decision of Congress prohibiting the use of military to maintain the order on the national territory (Commitus Posse Act).The plans are great scale ones : the scenarios range from “low intensity” with modest missions of crowd control, to “high intensity” with the total management of large-scale disasters following attacks such as the spreading of a biological agent.

In 2007, the annual report of the Pentagon certifies that it is preparing tests of chemical and biological weapons in the open air in violation of international conventions, revealed the Professor Francis A. Boyle, expert at the Council for Responsible Genetics and law enforcement editor of the BWC, which was signed by President George H. Bush Sr. The Pentagon denies that President George W. Bush issued a directive allowing him to resume tests of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) in open air, tests that were interrupted by President Richard Nixon in 1969. However, preparations announced by the Pentagon suggests that he is ready to do so. The Pentagon’s annual report apparently calls for “full testing [of CBW] on field” with regard to the development and exploitation of these agents, not just simulations. The following passage is explicit: “More than 30 years have passed since the prohibition in the United States of outdoor testing of live chemical agents, and since the last test of this kind was done, much of the infrastructure necessary for the field tests, such as chemical sensors no longer exist or it is seriously outdated. The increase currently planned in”Testing and Evaluation“infrastructure budget will highly improve both the development and the exploitation of the field tests, with a better representation of simulated threats and the definition of the system response”

Outdoor testing are shifting the research on lethal agents outside laboratories in order to study their effectiveness, including their aerial dispersion patterns, and to gauge their ability to infect and kill during field trials. Although a federal law allows the President to authorize open-air testing of CBW agents, Boyle said that it does not solve the issue of respecting international law because such an authorization would violate the International Convention on Chemical Weapons and the Biological Weapons Convention, as well as a legislation on the implementation of these conventions at the national level, and that these violations are legally crimes. Boyle says that the development of anthrax for possible offensive use is highlighted by the government’s efforts to try to store massive amounts of vaccines against Anthrax and antibiotics, for 25 million Americans at least, to protect the civilian population in case there is a backfire of the Anthrax use as part of a biological warfare conducted abroad by the Pentagon. He warns that it is fully prepared to launch a biological warfare by means of Anthrax. All equipments have been acquired and all the training conducted and most combat-ready members of U.S. armed forces were given protective equipments and vaccines that allegedly would protect them from this agent.

Associated Press says that the U.S. army is replacing its Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, located in Fort Dettrick with a new laboratory that would be composed of a bio-defense campus operated by several agencies. The Army told AP that the laboratory is intended to continue research only for defense purposes against biological threats. The fact that government scientists have created new strains of pathogens for which there is no known remedy, is strongly in contradiction to the argument that the U.S. research is lead for defensive purposes. Richard Novick, a professor of microbiology at the New York University, said: “I can not imagine a plausible rationale to explain the genetic modification of Anthrax as a defensive measure.” Indeed, the alteration of a pathogen consists of modifying its basic structure so that existing vaccines turn to be ineffective against it. The argument that we must continue the genetic engineering of pathogens to create a vaccine is not founded. Nature is producing modifiable pathogens in too large numbers, with too many altered genes, for only one vaccine to be effective. All experts in biological defense know that. So why are the United States continuing this project ?


Biological weapon history has been always linked to conflicts. For example, during the antiquity bowmen were soaking their arrows into the intestines of dead bodies; or rivers, sources, and wells were poisoned by poisoned plants or dead animal bodies during war periods; dead bodies contaminated by the plague were catapulted beyond the walls of besieged cities... For a long time, these actions have remained anectodal.
A corner point has been taken in 1763 by an English officer, using a specific disease, the smallpox, against Native Americans, and via contaminated covers. Closer to our time, during the first World War, Germany has been accused to use Cholera in Italia, and Plague in St Petersburg, and also to have infected thousands of mules in Mesapotamia with the glander bacillus.
In 1929, the USRR opened a biological weapon research center at the North of the Caspian sea. In 1931, the Japanese army created 3 specialized centers on biological warfare, and submitted prisoners to human experiments within the general Shiro Ishii’s 731 unit.
Between 1940 & 1944, the Japanese aviation spreaded the plague over several towns in China, dropping fragmentation bombs or porcelain filled with bacillus, or releasing contaminated fleas along with rice in order to attract rats. Great Britain experimented in 1941-1942 on the island of Gruinard, scattering devices of Bacillus anthracis. The access of the island stayed forbidden for several decades. In 1952, during Korea war, Americans have been accused spreading Cholera and also insects infected by the plague. In April and May 1979, an unusual epidemic of lung coal occurred in Sverdlork in USRR after a military building explosion.

The biological agents likely to be militarized are agents living or not, coming from the animals, or plants, or microbes areas, which are causing a disease to human beings, or plants, or animals, or a deterioration within a material. The definition is extended to the matters produced by micro-organisms, animals, and plants, thus including toxins and peptides, whatever their production system including indeed the biogenetic, genetic engineering, and others bio-technologies.

Biological agents can be sorted out either through live agents able to reproduce themselves (bacterias, mushrooms), either through live agents able to reproduce only upon a host cell (virus); either through no live agents unable to reproduce but secreted by live organisms (peptide, toxine); either through no live agents produced by chemical reaction, with identical structure or close to the previous ones.

Within the first group likely to create infections and epidemics are the bacterias, especially the coal agent (bacillus anthracis), the plague one (yersina pestis), tularemia (francisella tularensis), the brucellose one, the Q fever (Coxiella burneti), coccidioidomycose.Among the virus, we can add the smallpox one, and the encephalitis ones (tickes encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuala’s encephalitis, Chikungunya fever, O Nyong-Nyong fever, Rift Valley and Nil’s valley fever), the Dengue, the yellow fever, the hemorrhagic fever due to arbovriroses (Lassa, Marburg, Ebola), plus without forgetting the agents acting upon plants (tabacco mosaic, wheat rust, or rice rust), and the agents acting upon animals (Equidae’s glanders).
Among this list of potential diseases with military usage, only the following agents, class A (high priority, easy to produce and to spread, person to person contamination, important lethally, major impact on public health, panic and social perturbation ensured), the anthrax, the botulism, the plague, the smallpox, the tularemia and hemorrhagic fevers enable a credible use.
But the new weapon development, linked to biotechnologies progress, and the molecular engineering one can be used via two big means: optimisation of already known agents in order to make them more aggressives or creation of new agents. The natural agents written previously can be improved according to several modes : virulence growth, anti-biotics resistance selection, or resistance selection of the outside environment, extension of organism targets, inefficiency against current vaccines, unusual pathological board, exogenous genetic elements introduction, unusual toxin use, and finally with hybridization.
What has been already produced is the association combining the hemolytic toxine of cereus, and a modified strain of Anthracis bacillus for the vaccines, the crossing of smallpox and Ebola virus, the association of flue virus and Cobra toxin, the smallpox virus modified genetically, the wedding of smallpox virus and encephalitis, the cocktail enterotoxin B staphylococcic et encephalitis Equidaes of Venezuela.
All these cocktails of toxics, germs and toxins made said Lederberg a Nobel prize that the danger of these agents were higher than H-Bomb.

A biological weapon must have several components; a deleterious agent, a vaccine to avoid the « back lash », a leading device and a spread mechanism. This last point, when it is wanted by research laboratories, contractors for Pentagon is a revealing of the project offensive option.
Thanks to the technique of genes splicing, biologists are developing a new biological agent, then the vaccine. He aerosolises the agent, test it on live organisms, and finally gives it back to the fundamentals units to the military which they can produce, stock them in the optic to deploy them and use them. As soon as the virus or the toxins are militarized, they have to get a spread vector as an underground air conditioning system, or the postal network, and favourable conditions (temperature, sun, wind, humidity) in order to trigger a slaughter.
In the best possible conditions, only one aircraft could spread high levels of bacteriological agents upon hundreds, even thousands of square meters via straight line spraying against the wind from the target area.
In order to defend against the agents used for biological weapons, we should ask ourselves the following problem: including the difficulty to find their presence or identify them, the prevention requirements (foreknowledge of the agent type, ensure the availability of efficient medicines, get enough time to develop an immunity) and the fact that high level concentration of agents can even neutralize the immunity already given.

The medical researches on DNA sequences are aimed to develop pharmaceutical products able to fight against pathogenic agents, using as a baseline their genetic profile, and further acting in function of an individual or a human group genetic code. In theory, it is possible to develop a product specifically for each individual and we can imagine that a treatment directed to a group of individuals having the same genes can be produced. Because it is possible to create a medical treatment founded on genetic directed at one or several persons, it is also possible reversing the process to develop a pathogen agent targeting a specific human group. Within this frame, it is not surprising that the military and intelligence services of the overall world are very interesting about DNA mapping (human genome decoding).

This idea is not new. In 1937, Japanese were inserting virus and bacterias to their Chinese, Russian, American prisoners in order to see the effects according to the ethnics group. Their work has been taken by the Americans after the war. The Israel state took the same researches enabling the ethnic targeting (the aim was to develop an agent acting specifically on Arabs). They used as a baseline South African works which were searching to create a weapon able to kill only black skin individuals. We shouldn’t forget the “Paperclip” project, for which the United States used the services of the most brilliant Nazi scientists since 1945, bringing them across the Atlantic to work on the various war projects being led at that time
Thus it is nearly 100 years that numerous governments are studying a mean to develop new weapons using chemical reactions and DNA sequences.

At the end of 2001, the British society Acambis received an order of 155 millions doses of vaccine against the smallpox from the American Health and Humanitarian services department. Why does the American government make a stock of vaccines against smallpox, whereas this disease is officially declared eradicated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) since 1977? And why only 2 laboratories are holders of securities on trust of this virus, one American and the other one Russian? These 2 laboratories have been initially created on the aim of bacteriological wars during the Cold War. If the smallpox has been evicted, the battle over the future of virus stock conserved continues to oppose the partisans of its destruction and the others for its conservation. The decision of destruction was already taken in 1993. Since it has been always re-forecasted. To this day, the decision to destroy is not yet taken; it has been moved to 2011.What is at stake?

Some laboratories manifested their opposition explaining the need to carry on the researches upon this virus could be handed by rogue states, even terrorist groups. In June 2001, 3 months before 11th September, the United States organized the operation « Dark Winter », a drill involving smallpox inside the supermarkets of 3 major American towns. It was an alert exercise organized by the National Defense Institute. The newspaper Le Monde from October 26th, 2001 described the drill as follows: “The attacks didn’t leave any marks before the hospital emergency services became overcrowded by sick people 10 days afterward. The contaminated persons having infected their relatives without knowing their sickness; the epidemic would have been spread over the overall country before being detected. Within 2 months, 1 million people would have died. Only cure: the anti-smallpox vaccine. The American government just ordered 40 millions doses of vaccines, which will be added to the 15 million ones already stocked and envisions to get a stock of 300 millions doses”.
However the smallpox is not contagious during the incubation, thus it is impossible for infected persons, but not sick, to contaminate the others. Even they imagined that terrorists could have let themselves contaminated by the smallpox, then walked into the underground and in town during 8 days in order to contaminate a maximum number of persons. It is all opposite to the reduced capacities of contamination of the virus.

In December 2002, the Pentagon revealed its plan in case of a smallpox epidemic. This military authority is arguing that cause of the fact that smallpox is definitely eradicated, a lonely case declared of this disease will be considered as a terrorist attack consequent. The American government is saying that they fear that some strains could have been stolen in Russia and sold at black market in Iraq. The army could be called to ensure the order into the areas where a quarantine would be imposed, in case of a smallpox epidemic burst out in United States after a bacteriological attack. A massive wave of vaccination is required, beginning with Health employees, and 500 000 militaries likely to contract the smallpox at theatre of wars. The Pentagon order is including also the Visticide, an anti-virus aimed to reduce the second effects of the smallpox vaccination and to treat the declared infection. This medicine is produced by the Laboratories Gilead Sciences, whom Defense Secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, is the main shareholder, after having been the administrator until 2001.

In the same period, the newspaper The Independent is saying that the British scientists have the idea to exhume the victims bodies of the epidemic called « Spanish flu», which is the virus of the most deadly pandemic in recent history. (Within a few months only in 1918, the pandemic killed more than the first world war). Since 1997, on their own side, two American groups of molecular biologists and virus experts, under the leadership of doctor Jeffery Taubenberger (pathology Institute of the Armed forces in Washington) are tracking the virus, and announced that they already find some fragments into the cells of an American dead of this flu, at the age of 21 years old, in 1918 in South Carolina. They have managed to re-create in a laboratory the virus, and they are expecting that the results will help to set up the molecular bases of the virus pathology, and thus to facilitate the final elaboration of vaccines and efficient medicines. They established that the virus origin was a bird one, with under classification H1N1. According to the Taubenberger doctor, the pandemic of “Spanish flu” started in March 1918 in Kansas within the farms where a very close environment was between ducks-porks and humans. This flu alternative would have found the mean to pass from the animal to human beings, via a mutation. The American researchers found then the track of this same virus in Alaska, inside the lung skin alveolus of a woman dead in 1918. Thanks to reverse genetic high-tech, these researchers could identify the virus 8 genes. They also created this genetic material “naked”, which integrated into human kidney cells, over culture, enabled within 48 hours to re-create a pathological agent, which we believed disappeared for 85 years.

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Fièvre espagnole 1918

Exhuming bodies in order to get a sample of a virus disappeared for more than 100 years, and taking the risk to put this epidemic back into reality ...What is the game that these wizard trainees are playing ?

In 2002, the atypical pneumonia, SRAS appeared in China, near Hong-Kong. Between the beginning of November 2002 and the beginning of July 2003, it is affecting 8500 persons and 916 persons died. In September 2003, new pathologies happened in Singapour, the reason for this jump seems to come from a bad confinement of the virus in laboratories. This epidemic is happening at the same time that it is launched the total war on terrorism, and the English-American war against Iraq, because Saddam Hussein could have a stock of bacteriological weapons. This uprising epidemic is completing the effects of the bio-terrorism campaign. At this time, the Worldwide Health Organisation is launching a crisis plan in order to eradicate this unusual pneumonia epidemic. Davis Heymann from the Worldwide Health Organisation is declaring about the unusual pneumonia: “We have never met an epidemic so widespread, and with such a big scale” Dr Stohr, virus expert of the WHO, in charge of international coordination of the laboratories is adding: “it is the first time that a worldwide network of laboratories are exchanging by the way informations, samples, blood and pictures. There is no more secrets, no more jealousy, neither competition, in front of such worldwide health urgency. It is an impressive network!”

In between, in April 2003, a shock within the authorities communications comes from Russia. According to Sergei Kolesnikov, member of the Medecine academia, the virus is a cocktail of the ones of rougeole et des oreillons, blending which can not appear spontaneously into Nature. “We can get it only in laboratories” said the scientific to the press agency RIA Novosti during the conference at Irkoutsk in Siberia. From his point of view, it may be a bacteriological weapon, missing from a laboratory, and it should exist an anti-poison held secret. Dr Nikolai Filatov, who is leading the Moscow epidemiological services, said to the newspaper Gazeta that the disease have been deliberately created. Also the Institute of Science in Society of London touched on the possibility of genetic engineering experiences could have created the virus of the unusual pneumonia, even by mistake. However they didn’t think so openly the hypothesis of a creation on purpose contrary to the Russian scientists.

Last development, the 7th of October 2008, the Taiwan National Security official declared that it was not excluded that the SRAS epidemic of 2002 could have for origin the researches lead by Beijing on biological weapons. He also recognized that he didn’t get any proof of this thesis. This accusation is given in a context of latent conflict between China and America.

Whatever this virus escaped or has been released, its propagation enables to evaluate the answer time of authorities and laboratories facing bacteriological weapons. A weak lethal virus engineered by humans is ideal to study the mode and the propagation speed of a virus weapon.

References: Le mythe du XXIème siècle
Guerre biologique et terrorisme- Francis A.Boyle- Editions Demi Lune
Les armes de l’ombre - Marc Filterman- Editions Carnot,,2-10-1462_1346560,00.html

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